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Capital: Wiesbaden. Pop: 6 est.

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Area: 21 sq km sq miles. German name: Hessen. His novels include Der Steppenwolf and Das Glasperlenspiel : Nobel prize for literature Switch to new thesaurus. Mentioned in? References in periodicals archive? The European Commission decided, on 20 May, that aid amounting to , granted by the Land Hessen to Hessische Staatsweinguter - the biggest vineyard in Germany, owned by the Land Hessen - in the period before did not comply with EU state aid rules and has to be recovered with interest.

Mack postulates that with the end of the seigneurial regime, the rural people of Hessen became independent economic actors and that this led to a change in their relations with the Jewish population. The end of the Napoleonic wars freed the peasants from serfdom, but also demanded that they manage their own economic affairs. Very few peasants had the know-how to do this.


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Working together with their Jewish neighbors was a solution that offered itself. The institution of the "Hofjude" comes into being; he was the one who handled various business transactions for "his" peasants; Mack reports that this could even include marriage-brokering. According to Mack, the institution of the "Hofjude" was still in existence in a few places as late as , but the economic crisis of had greatly worsened the situation of the peasant farmers. This evolution, which can be observed in other regions as well, was particularly clear and widespread in Hessen.

This crisis had a major impact for agriculture, and it took more than twenty years to overcome it. Once again, the Jews were cast in the role of scapegoats.

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This attitude eventually made it possible for the Marburg librarian Dr. In a nutshell, this description makes it quite clear on which economic basis antisemitic prejudices could arise. There can be little question that these in turn were grounded in the pre-existing traditional anti-Judaism of the Christian churches Jews as Christ-killers. It is important to note Mack's reference to the rural antisemitic movement and its considerable resonance in Upper Hessen.

Antisemitic parties that competed in the Reichstag elections such as the Deutschsoziale Reformpartei provided a forum in which prejudices could find political expression. The electoral results of the National-Socialist parties yield a compar able picture. This is confirmed by the fact that in the 'twenties a number of antisemitic groups and organizations were active in Upper Hessen, among them the "Deutsche Jugend" organization.

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And finally it must be recalled that in the immediate aftermath of the Reichstag elections in March of pogrom-like popular excesses against the resident Jewish Germans occurred. These data clearly show that antisemitic prejudice was rooted in the Upper Hessian population long before Here it seems appropriate to include a few thoughts about the manner in which antisemitic prejudices are passed from generation to generation.

Understood as "pre-judgment" in the sense of the sociologist Alphons Silbermann, antisemitism generates "feelings" that bring people to "conclusions unmotivated by a great deal of thinking or familiarity with the facts. While "partaking of a shared body of attitudes and adhering to shared social norms" generate social cohesion as well as loyalty to institutions, those who are not participants in this communality become "different," "alien," and hence "outsiders.


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This "group-consciousness" is by definition learned, learned from others. After all, prejudices serve to satisfy individual needs and desires for security, prestige, or compensation for unfulfilled ambitions. In this sense such factors as "aggression, frustration, competition, and recrimination" can be considered "individual" and "motivational.

Expulsion and Extermination [26]. February A few weeks before the end of the war, 27 persons for the most part Jewish wives in so-called "mixed marriages" were arrested by the Gestapo and deported to Theresienstadt Terezin. These events had been preceded by the systematic expulsion of Jewish Germans in the years Here too, there is evidence that the pressure for expulsion in the rural districts of Upper Hessen began quite early and clearly had the massive support of the local population.

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The remaining Jewish families were brutally terrorized in the pogrom-night of 9 November By way of forcing their expulsion, men most of them heads of families were forcibly taken to the Buchenwald concentration Camp. With the outbreak of war, emigration was made increasingly difficult and soon prohibited altogether.

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By late the deportation of the remaining Jewish population began. In the fall of the following year , Jews were deported from Frankfurt, and in from the rest of Hessen. Their destinations were ghettoes and camps in occupied Poland. In the fall of , Jews still present in Upper Hessen were deported, and some of these transports went to Theresienstadt Terezin. Prior to these departures, however, the financial administration systematically stripped the potential deportees of all of their possessions.

Financial assets were confiscated; houses, furnishings, and valuables were "forfeited to the State.

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Few people refused to participate in this "legalized robbery. Some of the deportees of the February transport were liberated by the Soviets at Theresienstadt and could return to their home villages by early summer.

No New Beginning. In Harry Maor established a numerical accounting in his empirical study about the rebuilding of Jewish congregations in Germany. Of the members of these 9 Jewish congregations, lived in 48 communities in the rural areas around these towns. According to Maor the total number of Jews living in Hessen in was 2, January the number of Jews in the Land of Hessen is 1, This finding alone points to the difference between today's status and the traditional structure of Jewish life in Hessen, which was characterized by hundreds and hundreds of small congregations.

These small congregations will never again come into being There is every reason to agree with this conclusion today, in the year This figure for refers to today's Land Hessen, Rheinhessen and the district of Montabaur. Die Betreuung oberhessischer Juden ist in Frankfurt zentralisiert. Cited from Monica Kingreen, "Gewaltsam verschleppt aus Oberhessen.

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Schneider, "Die Juden von Nieder-Ohmen," no place no date p. To be sure, the principle of "one man, one vote" must be taken quite literally: women did not have the right to vote until the end of the Second Empire. Percentage of Votes for Antisemitic Parties. Year Germany Hessen Oberhessen Kr.