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Parchment Assessment of the Codex Sinaiticus

Replacing the lime water bath also sped the process up. However, if the skins were soaked in the liquor too long, they would be weakened and not able to stand the stretching required for parchment. After soaking in water to make the skins workable, the skins were placed on a stretching frame. A simple frame with nails would work well in stretching the pelts. The skins could be attached by wrapping small, smooth rocks in the skins with rope or leather strips.

Both sides would be left open to the air so they could be scraped with a sharp, semi-lunar knife to remove the last of the hair and get the skin to the right thickness. The skins, which were made almost entirely of collagen, would form a natural glue while drying and once taken off the frame they would keep their form. The stretching allowed the fibres to become aligned running parallel to the grain. To make the parchment more aesthetically pleasing or more suitable for the scribes, special treatments were used.

According to Reed there were a variety of these treatments. Rubbing pumice powder into the flesh side of parchment while it was still wet on the frame was used to make it smooth so inks would penetrate deep into the fibres. Powders and pastes of calcium compounds were also used to help remove grease so the ink would not run. To make the parchment smooth and white, thin pastes starchgrain or staunchgrain of lime, flour, egg whites and milk were rubbed into the skins.

Meliora di Curci in her paper "The History and Technology of Parchment Making" notes that parchment was not always white. During the seventh through the ninth centuries, many earlier parchment manuscripts were scrubbed and scoured to be ready for rewriting, and often the earlier writing can still be read. These recycled parchments are called palimpsests. Later, more thorough techniques of scouring the surface irretrievably lost the earlier text. First edition. Elaborate gold-and brown stamped full vellum with metal clasps. Front cover with gold-embossed illustration of a dagger within double-brown border.

Outer margins of front board with continuous lettering inside brown border: "Das eiserne Buch. We want to be a people of brothers who never leave each other in times of need and danger. Four metal studs on rear board, top of studs decorated with outline of Iron Cross. Top edge gilt. Jugendstil front and rear endpapers, 1 blank leaf in front and rear with watermark of a crown followed by blank leaves with decorative head- and tailpieces on high quality JW Zanders paper, all watermarked with image of a dagger.

Also contains printed half-title, 2 illustrated section pages as well as printed text leaf in rear. Blank leaves divided into three sections with two titled pages no titled leaf in first section. Unseren gefallenen Helden" Honor Row. Our fallen heroes. Top margin of page shows decorative border with some gold overprinting of an Iron Cross with small crown and "W " within.

Third section with black printed half-title "Gemeinde Kriegschronik," followed by section leaf "Gemeinde Kriegschronik. Life and events in the community during the war years. Center of that page illustrated with golden dagger surrounded by green leafs within border in gold, black and green. Cissarz, Stuttgart. Exquisitely designed binding by Cissarz with fully functioning metal clasps and unused interior leaves.

Boards bowed. Minor staining on vellum. Very slight rusting on metal. Binding in very good, interior in fine condition. Johannes Joseph Vincenz Cissarz was a German typographer, designer, illustrator, architect and teacher. His 'Cissarz Latin' typeface established him as one of the premiere book designers in Germany.

Offered by Eric Chaim Klien Bookseller. Vellum was commonly used in bookbinding. It could be used to cover a wooden or cardboard core or alone without any backing.


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Many vellum bindings are simple and undecorated. Vellum was often used to cover less-valuable or common books. However, it could be decorated in a number of ways.

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Blind stamping or impressing a design into wet vellum or leather with a hot punch or roller was a common way of decorating vellum bound books. Sometimes it or the designs was also gilded. One decorative technique, invented in the late 18th century, involved the use of very thin and transparent vellum.

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A scenic picture, coat of arms, portrait, or other design would be painted on the underside of the transparent vellum. This protected the painting from smudging or damage from handling.

The binding would also be decorated with blind stamped and gilded decorations. Because vellum was expensive, it was not uncommon for old manuscript pages to be reused to make bindings. A number of valuable and important manuscripts have been recovered from old bindings. Limp binding is a bookbinding method in which the book has flexible cloth, leather, vellum, or rarely paper sides.

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blood and parchment first offering Manual

When the sides of the book are made of vellum, the bookbinding method is also known as limp vellum. The cover is made with a single piece of vellum or alternative material, folded around the text block, the front and back covers being folded double. The quires are sewn onto cords such as alum-tawed thongs and the sewing supports would be laced into the vellum cover.


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